Due to the competitive nature of the construction industry and the need to keep projects on time, in budget and having the best quality obtainable there is a need to shift the tradition project delivery methods to newer more collaborative methods. Thus Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is gaining momentum throughout the country.
Integrated Project Delivery is a project delivery approach that integrates people, systems, business structures and practices into a process that collaboratively harnesses the talents and insights of all participants to optimize project results, increase value to the owner, reduce waste, and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication, and construction. Below is a chart that maps out the basic phases of the project and how they correlate to the various tasks and level of detail in the plans and drawings. For example the top line shows the various phases of the project, next is the activities; planning, conceive, design and execute. The next lines show the different players in the project and shows how the project lead transfers from owner to architect to general contractor. Then the final line shows how the resolution and level of detail gets finer as the project progresses and this can also serve as a timeline for the project and milestones can be placed into this so that all parties are aware of when they occur and what they will need for these milestones. See below for a list of possible milestones in a project.
SAMPLE PROJECT FLOW CHART
IPD & BIM Case Studies
Fundamental Principles of IPD
1. Mutual Respect & Trust. In an integrated project, owner, designer,
consultants, constructor, subcontractors and suppliers understand the value of
collaboration and are committed to working as a team in the best interests of
2. Mutual Benefit & Reward. All participants or team members benefit from IPD.
Because the integrated process requires early involvement by more parties,
IPD compensation structures recognize and reward early involvement.
Compensation is based on the value added by an organization and it rewards
“what’s best for project” behavior, such as by providing incentives tied to
achieving project goals. Integrated projects use innovative business models to
support collaboration and efficiency.
3. Collaborative Innovation & Decision Making. Innovation is stimulated when
ideas are freely exchanged among all participants. In an integrated project,
ideas are judged on their merits, not on the author’s role or status. Key
decisions are evaluated by the project team and, to the greatest practical
extent, made unanimously.
4. Early Involvement of Key Participants. In an integrated project, the key
participants are involved from the earliest practical moment. Decision making
is improved by the influx of knowledge and expertise of all key participants.
Their combined knowledge and expertise is most powerful during the project’s
early stages where informed decisions have the greatest effect.
5. Early Goal Definition. Project goals are developed early, agreed upon and
respected by all participants. Insight from each participant is valued in a culture
that promotes and drives innovation and outstanding performance, holding
project outcomes at the center within a framework of individual participant
objectives and values.
6. Intensified Planning. The IPD approach recognizes that increased effort in
planning results in increased efficiency and savings during execution. Thus the
thrust of the integrated approach is not to reduce design effort, but rather to
greatly improve the design results, streamlining and shortening the much more
expensive construction effort.
7. Open Communication. IPD’s focus on team performance is based on open,
direct, and honest communication among all participants. Responsibilities are
clearly defined in a no-blame culture leading to identification and resolution of
problems, not determination of liability. Disputes are recognized as they occur
and promptly resolved.
8. Appropriate Technology. Integrated projects often rely on cutting edge
technologies. Technologies are specified at project initiation to maximize
functionality, generality and interoperability. Open and interoperable data
exchanges based on disciplined and transparent data structures are essential
to support IPD. Because open standards best enable communications among
all participants, technology that is compliant with open standards is used
9. Organization & Leadership. The project team is an organization in its own right
and all team members are committed to the project team’s goals and values.
Leadership is taken by the team member most capable with regard to specific
work and services. Often, design professionals and contractors lead in areas of
their traditional competence with support from the entire team, however
specific roles are necessarily determined on a project-by-project basis. Roles
are clearly defined, without creating artificial barriers that chill open
communication and risk taking.
Level of Detail / Project Timeline:
Sample Project Milestones:
1 - Owner has need for building project and starts business planning
50 - Owner hires Architect, preliminary project program is developed
100 - Owner & Architect start Building Program as well as bring on project team
General Contractor, key Engineering Consultants, Major Trades Contractors
(HVAC, Sprinkler, Electrical, Plumbing, Other Specialty Equipment)
200 - Design Development Starts
215 - Multiple design explorations reviewed and one is selected
225 - Preliminary Local Plan Commission Approvals
250 - Multiple design options explored and reviewed, one is selected and approved,
work begins to finalize selected design option
275 - Final Local Plan Commission Approvals
300 - Final design option reviewed and approved by project team
350 - Construction Docs 75% complete and BID documents sent out to firm up
375 - Construction Docs 90% complete and sent in for state approvals and Site
construction work may start
390 - Shop drawings are starting to be submitted for approval by A&E firm.
395 - Final changes and updates made to construction docs to incorporate all final
trade designs and Construction Documents are reviewed and approved
400 - Construction Documents issued to General Contractor to start
490 - Final Building Inspections, Contractor Punch List, A&E letter of compliance
500 - General Contractor Turns keys over to owner
510 - As-Built drawings completed and turned over to owner
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